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2013 (Vol. 5, Issue: 05)
Article Information:

Extraction and Chemical Composition of Seed Kernel Oil from Irvingia smithii of Congo Basin

B.W. Loumouamou, J.P.M. Gomoufatan, T. Silou, J.M. Nzikou, G.V. Mbaya Gindo, G. Figueredo and J.P. Chalard
Corresponding Author:  B.W. Loumouamou 

Key words:  Congo basin, fatty acid, Irvingia smithii , nutrients, oil content, triacylglycerol, unsaponifiable
Vol. 5 , (05): 506-513
Submitted Accepted Published
June 07, 2012 July 18, 2012 May 05, 2013
Abstract:

This study is part of a wider program on the development of oilseeds in the Congo Basin and its aim was to contribute to the knowledge of Irvingia smithii kernel by studying his chemical composition following the example of those of Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombulu. Irvingia smithii kernel, like those of Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombulu is multipurpose, however, less known than the latter. The assessment of oilseeds of the kernel of Irvingia smithii showed that it is oleaginous with fat contents of about 55%. The fatty acid profile established by gas chromatography showed that the lauric acid content is higher than that of myristic acid (% C12: 0>% C14: 0) and both have a percentage of the total fatty acid content of nearly 90%. Palmitic acid (C16: 0), the third major constituent has nearly 5%. Oleic (C18: 1) and capric (C10: 0) acids have significant levels and palmitoleic (C16: 1) and stearic (C18: 0) acids are to trace. Triacylglycerol profile established by liquid chromatography coupled to the Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (ELSD) has three major TAG (% LaLaM >% LAMM >% LaLaLa), one minor TAG (MMM) and two TAG to trace (CLaLa and MMP). Fats of Irvingia smithii studied have levels of unsaponifiables ranging from 1.25 to 2.97% with the major components such as beta-sitosterol (36%) and stigmasterol (18%). For macronutrients, the most abundant element is Magnesium While the Iron is the least abundant with the following decreasing profile: Mg>P>Ca>Fe. Spectrometric assessment of color led to the remarkable presence of the peaks relating to the absorption of carotenoids and chlorophyll pigments located between 630 and 670 nm.
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  Cite this Reference:
B.W. Loumouamou, J.P.M. Gomoufatan, T. Silou, J.M. Nzikou, G.V. Mbaya Gindo, G. Figueredo and J.P. Chalard, 2013. Extraction and Chemical Composition of Seed Kernel Oil from Irvingia smithii of Congo Basin.  Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 5(05): 506-513.
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ISSN (Online):  2042-4876
ISSN (Print):   2042-4868
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