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2013 (Vol. 4, Issue: 6)
Article Information:

Hepatotoxicity of Cadmium and Roles of Mitigating Agents

Elias Adikwu, Oputiri Deo and Oru-Bo Precious Geoffrey
Corresponding Author:  Elias Adikwu 

Key words:  Cadmium, liver, mechanism, mitigation, route, toxicity,
Vol. 4 , (6): 222-231
Submitted Accepted Published
February 27, 2013 May 03, 2013 December 25, 2013

There are increasing reports on cadmium associated hepatotoxicity, due to these reports this study reviewed relevant literature on cadmium associated hepatotoxicity with emphasis on doses, route of administration, salt forms (cadmium compounds) and the roles of mitigating agents. Reports have shown that continuous exposure of the liver to cadmium has led to hepatotoxicity. Humans are generally exposed to cadmium by two main routes, inhalation and ingestion. In this study, evaluation of relevant literature showed that irrespective of route of administration and salt forms cadmium hepatotoxicity is dose and time dependent. Cadmium associated hepatotoxicity manifested through impaired functions of hepatic biomarkers (transaminases), enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological damage to liver architecture manifested as swelling of hepatocytes, focal necrosis, hepatocytes degeneration, dilatation of ribosomes, damage of membrane-bounded lysosomes, nuclear pyknosis and cytoplasm vacuolization. Deterioration of mitochondrial cristae, deposition of collagen fibrils, hypertrophy of kuffer cells, congestion in central veins and sinusoids, infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells and peripheral hemorrhage also occurred. Hepatotoxic effect of cadmium was mitigated by Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Manganese (11) Chloride, N-acetylcysteine and Selenium. Extracts of plant origin including Solanum tuberosum, Calycopteris floribunda Hibiscus sabdariffa mitigated cadmium induced hepatotoxicity. Chemical substances of animal origin including honey and camel milk were reported to have ameliorated cadmium induced hepatotoxicity. One of the mechanisms of cadmium induced hepatotoxicity is reported to be associated with the up regulation of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress) which caused oxidative damage to lipid contents of membranes and direct liver injury. Conclusion cadmium is dose and time dependently hepatotoxic irrespective of route of administration, salt form and is ameliorated by some antioxidants and extracts of plant and materials of animal origin which may require further evaluation for clinical application.
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  Cite this Reference:
Elias Adikwu, Oputiri Deo and Oru-Bo Precious Geoffrey, 2013. Hepatotoxicity of Cadmium and Roles of Mitigating Agents.  British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 4(6): 222-231.
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ISSN (Online):  2044-2467
ISSN (Print):   2044-2459
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