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2012 (Vol. 4, Issue: 2)
Article Information:

Socio-Economic Profiles of Communities Adjacent to Tanga Marine Reserve Systems, Tanzania: Key Ingredients to General Management Planning

Mwita M. Mangora and Mwanahija. S. Shalli
Corresponding Author:  Mwita M. Mangora 

Key words:  Coastal marine resources, general management plan, livelihoods, marine protected areas, tanga, ,
Vol. 4 , (2): 141-149
Submitted Accepted Published
December 20, 2011 January 20, 2012 March 20, 2012

The aim of the present study was to appraise socio-economic profiles and dependence on coastal and marine resources of communities adjacent to the newly established Tanga Marine Reserve systems (TMRs) as a key element that will inform development of a General Management Plan (GMP) for the reserves. Establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been sought as viable measures to prevent coastal and marine resources degradation whilst ensuring viable livelihoods options for local communities. A total of 140 household interviews and seven semi-structured key informant in-depth interviews were administered in seven representative villages. Fishing (inclusive of fish vending) and agriculture were common occupations, which quite often overlapped. The limitations to community development were rooted in lack of modern equipment and technological advancement for fisheries and agriculture. These emanated from limited access to capital and markets. Illiteracy was also implicated in the deterioration of livelihoods in most households. Household expenditure to income ratio indicated that, household budgets are vulnerable to deficits and that rival and recurrent expense items like food drew the majority of household income. Enhancement and diversification of livelihoods occupations is one of viable management strategies to be incorporated into the GMP for TMRs because predominant fishers may gradually shift to off-fishing occupations. A robust transition is therefore pertinent. Some of the eminent examples for consideration as alternative sources of income are suggested.
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  Cite this Reference:
Mwita M. Mangora and Mwanahija. S. Shalli, 2012. Socio-Economic Profiles of Communities Adjacent to Tanga Marine Reserve Systems, Tanzania: Key Ingredients to General Management Planning.  Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2): 141-149.
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ISSN (Online):  2041-3246
ISSN (Print):   2041-3238
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