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2012 (Vol. 1, Issue: 1)
Article Information:

Some Occupational Diseases in Culture Fisheries Management and Practices Part One: Malaria and River Blindness (Onchocerciasis)

B.R. Ukoroije and J.F.N. Abowei
Corresponding Author:  J.F.N. Abowei 

Key words:  Culture fisheries , malaria, management and practice, occupational diseases , onchocerciasis, ,
Vol. 1 , (1): 47-63
Submitted Accepted Published
May 01, 2012 June 01, 2012 July 25, 2012
Abstract:

Malaria and Onchocerciasis are some occupational diseases in culture fisheries management and practices discussed to enlighten fish culturist the health implications of the profession. The pond environment forms the breeding grounds the female anopheles mosquito and silmulium fly the vectors of malaria and onchocerciasis, respectively. Malaria is a borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by eukaryotic protists of the genus Plasmodium. The disease results from the multiplication of Plasmodium parasites within red blood cells, causing symptoms that typically include fever and headache, in severe cases progressing to coma or death. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Americas. Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be transmitted by humans. Severe disease is largely caused by Plasmodium falciparum; while the disease caused by Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae is generally a milder disease that is rarely fatal. Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonosis that causes malaria in macaques but can also infect humans. Onchocerciasis is the world's second-leading infectious cause of blindness. It is not the nematode, but its endosymbiont, Wolbachia pipientis, that causes the severe inflammatory response that leaves many blind. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bite of a black fly of the genus Simulium. The larval nematodes spread throughout the body. When the worms die, their Wolbachia symbionts are released, triggering a host immune system response that can cause severe itching and can destroy optical tissue in the eye. The life of the parasite (O. volvulus) can be traced through the black fly and the human hosts. The study reviews the signs and symptoms, causes, life cycle, pathogenesis, genetic resistance, diagnosis, hepatopathy, prevention, medications, vector control, indoor residual, mosquito nets and bedclothes spraying, Immunization, Other methods, treatment, epidemiology, history, prevention, discovery of the parasite, discovery of mosquito transmission, liver stage, in vitro culture, history of treatment, society and culture, counterfeit drugs, war, eradication efforts and research of Malaria and Onchocerciasis.
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  Cite this Reference:
B.R. Ukoroije and J.F.N. Abowei, 2012. Some Occupational Diseases in Culture Fisheries Management and Practices Part One: Malaria and River Blindness (Onchocerciasis).  International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1(1): 47-63.
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ISSN (Online):  2049-842X
ISSN (Print):   2049-8411
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