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2013 (Vol. 6, Issue: 16)
Article Information:

Compositional Analysis of Ancient Bricks at Site 2211, Candi Pengkalan Bujang, Kedah

Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abd. Rahman, Abdul Latif Samian, Adnan Jusoh, Yunus Sauman and Othman Mohd Yatim
Corresponding Author:  Zuliskandar Ramli 

Key words:  Pengkalan Bujang, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Ancient bricks, Muda River, Bujang River, Bujang Valley
Vol. 6 , (16): 3027-3033
Submitted Accepted Published
January 09, 2013 January 31, 2013 September 10, 2013
Abstract:

Archaeological research at Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 2211) which is located at Pengkalan Bujang, Kedah was conducted in 2008 and was carried out by researchers from the National University of Malaysia (UKM). The site is believed to be a new site because based on the Quaritch-Wales report, the site based on its location is not in the report that was published by Quaritch-Wales. Based on its orientation of northeast-southwest, which is the same orientation as Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 22), hence this Candi or temple was of the Buddhist religion and was constructed between the 11th century to the 13th century AD. Composition analysis of bricks at this site was conducted to determine whether the source of the raw material is local, namely clay or otherwise. The technique used is the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique to determine the mineral phases of the bricks and also the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique to determine the major element and trace element content of the bricks. The mineral content found in the ancient bricks of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 2211) consists of quartz, microcline, muscovite and minor minerals such as albite and geothite. Major element and trace element content also show that the raw materials used were derived from the basin of the Muda River, Bujang River and the surrounding areas of Kota sub-district. Indirectly, this study proves that local raw material was used to produce bricks at this site.
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  Cite this Reference:
Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abd. Rahman, Abdul Latif Samian, Adnan Jusoh, Yunus Sauman and Othman Mohd Yatim, 2013. Compositional Analysis of Ancient Bricks at Site 2211, Candi Pengkalan Bujang, Kedah.  Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 6(16): 3027-3033.
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ISSN (Online):  2040-7467
ISSN (Print):   2040-7459
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