Home           Contact us           FAQs           
 
   Journal Page   |   Aims & Scope   |   Author Guideline   |   Editorial Board   |   Search
    Abstract
2014 (Vol. 7, Issue: 9)
Article Information:

Usage of Local Raw Material in the Construction of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18), Bujang Valley, Kedah

Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman, Abdul Latif Samian, Muhammad Rizal Razman, Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria and Ahmad Rizal Mohd Yusof
Corresponding Author:  Zuliskandar Ramli 

Key words:  Bujang valley, Candi Pengkalan Bujang (site 18), local wisdom, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence , ,
Vol. 7 , (9): 1779-1786
Submitted Accepted Published
April 24, 2013 May 18, 2013 March 05, 2014
Abstract:

The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18) are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18) which is located in the cemetery area of Pengkalan Bujang Mosque, Kedah has unearthed various interesting artefacts; among them are the Sung Dynasty celadon findings and also kala carvings made from granite. The main construction materials used to build the temple consisted of laterite, slates, bricks and also granite. Laterite and bricks were used to build the lower part (foot) of the temple while granite stones were used as the pillar bases, door sills, stone hem and also kala. The upper part of the temple is believed to have been built using wooden structures and the roof used palm leaves. Natural rock resources used to build this temple were local resources based on the distribution of the rocks that are aplenty in Bujang Valley. Scientific analysis on the bricks also showed that local raw material was used to produce these bricks. Scientific analysis using the X-ray fluorescence technique and X-ray diffraction technique can determine the chemical composition of the bricks, among others the mineral content of the bricks as well as the major element and trace element content. The analysis showed that open burning technique was used in the process of producing the bricks while the major and trace element content analysis showed the clay used was obtained from the Muda River and Bujang River basin. This usage of local raw material also demonstrated the local wisdom in temple construction technology and also technique in producing bricks that had existed since the 5th century AD.
Abstract PDF HTML
  Cite this Reference:
Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman, Abdul Latif Samian, Muhammad Rizal Razman, Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria and Ahmad Rizal Mohd Yusof, 2014. Usage of Local Raw Material in the Construction of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18), Bujang Valley, Kedah.  Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 7(9): 1779-1786.
    Advertise with us
 
ISSN (Online):  2040-7467
ISSN (Print):   2040-7459
Submit Manuscript
   Current Information
   Sales & Services
   Contact Information
  Executive Managing Editor
  Email: admin@maxwellsci.com
  Publishing Editor
  Email: support@maxwellsci.com
  Account Manager
  Email: faisalm@maxwellsci.com
  Journal Editor
  Email: admin@maxwellsci.com
  Press Department
  Email: press@maxwellsci.com
Home  |  Contact us  |  About us  |  Privacy Policy
Copyright © 2009. MAXWELL Science Publication, a division of MAXWELLl Scientific Organization. All rights reserved