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2012 (Vol. 4, Issue: 04)
Article Information:

Groundwater Quality in the Sahelian Region of Northern Ghana, West Africa

S.J. Cobbina, F.K. Nyame and S. Obiri
Corresponding Author:  S.J. Cobbina 

Key words:  Groundwater, hydrochemical facies, Northern Ghana, sahelian, Sawla-Tuna-Kalba, water quality,
Vol. 4 , (04): 482-491
Submitted Accepted Published
February 18, 2012 March 12, 2012 April 15, 2012
Abstract:

In many arid ecological zones of the world, the utilization of groundwater for various purposes is common due to the scarcity of surface water. In the sahelian regions of northern Ghana, groundwater serves as a major source of freshwater for domestic and agricultural purposes. This study investigated the quality of groundwater from 129 boreholes in the Sawla-Tuna-Kalba district in the Sahelian region of northern Ghana, to promote and enhance the proper utilization of the resource. Samples were collected and analyzed for various water quality parameters to evaluate its usefulness for domestic and agricultural use. Results indicates that groundwater in the study is generally fresh and hard. It was found that majority of samples belong to the Ca- Mg-HCO3 hydrochemical facies. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) for all groundwater samples in the district ranged from 0.18-3.61 (mean 1.00), implying that all the boreholes samples had excellent water that could be used for irrigation. This was confirmed by analytical data plot on the US salinity diagram which illustrates that majority of groundwater samples fall in the field of C2S1; indicating medium salinity and low sodium water. Though many of the analysed parameters fall within acceptable range and thus most of the boreholes had water which were chemically suitable for drinking, a few recorded total iron, manganese, lead, arsenic and fluoride concentrations above permissible WHO levels, suggesting some concern in terms of potability, especially since such water sources are extensively patronised by inhabitants for drinking and agricultural purposes.
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  Cite this Reference:
S.J. Cobbina, F.K. Nyame and S. Obiri, 2012. Groundwater Quality in the Sahelian Region of Northern Ghana, West Africa.  Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 4(04): 482-491.
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