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2013 (Vol. 5, Issue: 04)
Article Information:

Classification and Evaluation of Commercial Bottled Drinking Waters in Saudi Arabia

H.A. Ghrefat
Corresponding Author:  H.A. Ghrefat 

Key words:  Bottled water, cluster analysis, principal components, Saudi Arabia, water quality, ,
Vol. 5 , (04): 210-218
Submitted Accepted Published
December 31, 2012 February 26, 2013 April 20, 2013
Abstract:

This study reports an evaluation on the quality of 54 brands of bottled drinking waters currently consumed in Saudi Arabia. The relationships among eight selected major chemical ion variables (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate and nitrate) were examined by correlation analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Principal component analysis identified three factors, which are responsible for the data structure explaining ~64% of the total variance of the data set and allowed to group the selected parameters according to common features. Hierarchical cluster analysis classified the evaluated water brands into different groups based on the similarity of water quality characteristics. The results demonstrated that the water brands have a diverse character reflected by their chemical compositions and are dominated by Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl type water. Total hardness values classified most of the studied brands into soft to moderately hard water. Generally, the physical and chemical constituents lie within the acceptable boundaries established by Saudi Arabian Standards Organization, International Bottled Water Association, Food and Drug Administration and World Health Organization for drinking water.
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  Cite this Reference:
H.A. Ghrefat, 2013. Classification and Evaluation of Commercial Bottled Drinking Waters in Saudi Arabia.  Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 5(04): 210-218.
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ISSN (Online):  2041-0492
ISSN (Print):   2041-0484
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